Jeudi 23 septembre 2010

End of the era demon

  October 1944, at the Battle of Leyte Gulf, the U.S. Navy and Air Force fully displayed their prowess, annihilate the main Japanese combined fleet, the Pacific war situation has been increasingly clear, Japan's ultimate defeat is inevitable. China on the battlefield, the heroic Chinese soldiers and civilians continue to fight, and gradually many of the Japanese occupation of the liberation of the region. Potsdam Conference, the Allied leaders as soon as possible to reach consensus fascist forces defeated Japan, and discussed how to give a final bitter blow to the Japanese. July 26 in the "Potsdam Declaration" urged the Japanese Government to immediately surrender unconditionally. 
  The face of Allied looms, Japan's top ruling group also began to waver, and constantly meeting to discuss whether to accept the "Potsdam Declaration" unconditional surrender requirements. In that drop is the issue of war, has divided the ruling group, the Army Minister Anami main battle party, led by Continental to the Foreign Secretary, led by Foreign Minister Togo owners. Side also know that the main battle powerful allies, so that the following three conditions are met to accept the surrender: the Japanese presence is only a small number of allied occupation forces; by the Japanese Government's own war criminals to trial; dissolution of the army by the Japanese themselves. Although the majority reconcilable Taliban, but the hands of military power was the main war party hands. At that time, there are 2.25 million Japanese troops home, more than 7,000 aircraft, but there are 100 million Kwantung Army in Northeast China, so there is a trace of the war party may rely on the minds of the local fight to the death of the fantasy, 
  Rulers are still debated in Japan, Americans have reached the limit of endurance. Followed by the United States dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki two atomic bombs, killing hundreds of thousands of casualties; the Soviet Union also began to attack the Japanese army in northeast China, Su Junbing three columns to avalanche region to the Japanese occupation forward. Millions of Japanese Imperial Army known as frightened, looked on the run. More than 20 days after the Soviets over 5,000 kilometers in front to move forward on the front of the hundreds of kilometers, the liberation of northeast China. 
  August 12, ABC aired the Allies of reply, said that since the day the Japanese 传奇私服 surrendered, the power of the Emperor and the Japanese government will be under the Supreme Allied Commander, will be based on the Japanese government in the form of the "Potsdam Proclamation" determined by the wishes of the people of Japan. Complex according to the war party and reconcilable Taliban once again triggered a dispute. Emperor Hirohito surrendered the final decision, and in August 14 at the time of recording up to 8 minutes of surrender rescript. Anand continental war party did so mutiny subordinates, attempted takeover of radio and the Royal Palace, the result was failure. Upon learning of terrestrial Anan, laparotomy suicide. August 15 at noon, the radio came the edict of the Emperor to surrender recording. Edict of the Emperor play in public, that Japan surrendered to the Allies, officially ending World War II. August 17, the emperor issued to domestic and foreign armed forces surrender to the Allies Chile encyclical. September 2, the Japanese surrender ceremony in the "Missouri" on the USS MacArthur presided over the Allied surrender on behalf of the ceremony. 
  8:55, 11 the representative of Japan and his party boarded the "Missouri" warship, Foreign Minister Shigemitsu hobbled on crutches to walk in the front, he represented the royal family and the Government of Japan, followed by the General Staff Umezu General, on behalf of the Japanese military. Representatives of the face of the Allies, this line of 11 people nervous, uncomfortable, like a gang of criminals undergoing trial. 
  9 am, the formal surrender ceremony began, first played the U.S. national anthem "Star Spangled Banner", followed by MacArthur speech: "Whatever the defeated or overcome, we are more noble to seek the dignity of human beings in this together. I In fact, the most fervent hope is the hope of all mankind, that is, beginning from this solemn occasion, from the bloodshed and massacres in the past to produce a better world, one built on the basis of mutual trust and understanding of the world, a respect for human dignity, realization of human freedom to the most pressing world of tolerance and justice. "Subsequently, Shigemitsu, Umezu, in turn began to sign. Allies was signed on behalf of China, General Hsu Yung-chang.
Par iqwsf - 6 commentaire(s)le 23 septembre 2010

Mussolini hanging dead on the streets

April 28, 1945 in the evening, Milan gas station a square metal column, upside down two dead bodies covered with mud. The two men that Mussolini and his mistress Bei Taxi. They and other fascist leaders in Beirut on the lawn in front of Monty Villa executed by the guerrillas. Finally come to an end-powerful fascist Italy.     Mussolini, July 29, 1883 was born in Italy 普雷达皮奥, journalists done early. First World War, terrorist dictatorship of the fascist party first appeared in Italy, Mussolini's fascist party leader and is the initiator of fascism. In 1919, the bourgeoisie and the reactionary right wing organizations as the backbone of the armed soldiers "battle group" is a fascist party's predecessor in 1921 became a fascist party. "Fascist" comes from the Latin text of "beam rods," the term refers to the ancient Roman symbol of authority of the consul that rods. Later, the "fascist" has been dedicated as a synonym for dictatorship.   In 1922, Mussolini and the gang launched a "march of Rome," the coup, 传奇私服 forcing the king to form a government, which seized power. In 1928, he was forced to terminate parliamentary system of government, self-proclaimed "head of government." During his rule, internal announced that other political parties are illegal, so that Italy became a fascist "total state", the implementation of crazy military buildup, wantonly killing people. Foreign advocate chauvinism and racism, and pursuing a policy of aggressive war. 30 years, Germany and Japan have established a fascist dictatorship, the growing threat of fascism, Mussolini has launched an aggressive war against Ethiopia, Spain, armed intervention and occupation of Albania. In 1937, Jia Rude, Japan's "Anti-Comintern Pact" and become a member of the fascist Axis. Also involved in aggression 捷克斯洛克 Munich conspiracy. In 1940, he followed Germany and France, declared war on France. Mussolini is one of the major war criminals of the war.   Early summer 1943, the Allied landings in Sicily Island, counter-point of the war home to Italy. Domestic and international anti-fascist forces in the attack, Mussolini's dictatorship has been in precarious being. Allies in the Soviet-German battle, the victory in North Africa and Sicily, so that the dissolution of the fascist Axis foregone conclusion, deserted Mussolini, including his son, including a group of military officers and political leaders launched a coup to catch him under the stage, and put him under house arrest in Rome, 120 km northeast of the large Sasso peak inside the small restaurant. In order to prevent the German fascists come to the rescue and Italy built specially selected this highest peak in the Apennine Mountains of small restaurants, it is in the cliffs on three sides on the volley, only one cable is connected with the outside world.   Mussolini was arrested the next day, the Italian radio station to broadcast his "resignation" of the message. July 25, the message spread from Rome to Berlin, Hitler was greatly disturbed, immediately held a meeting, and finally decided to take all measures to rescue Mussolini, the occupation of Rome, and do everything possible to support the Italian fascist party has collapsed. If the government and its allies signed the armistice 巴多格里奥 treaty, it must be to develop further plans to seize the Italian Fleet, the fort occupied by the Italian National deterrence Italian troops in the Balkans 传奇sf and the Aegean Sea. Mussolini in Italy for the use of residual forces in the war to hang on until the end, Hitler decided to send a special forces went to the so-called "world's highest prison" where rescue him. Special Forces captain was born in Austria Scholze Nepal, specially summoned him before leaving Hitler and Mussolini requirements must be rescued. September 12, 12 gliders flew over large Sasso. Germany and Italy in the pro-military officers with the help of special teams successfully lifted the Italian armed defenders. Mussolini was aware he is free, and can not help but sigh: "I know my friends will not abandon me Hitler."   At 3 days after, that is, September 15, Hitler instructed Mussolini's Salo town in northern Italy formed a new government and the country name as the "Italian Social Republic", when the Italian Fascist leader Mexico Suo Lini is already living off others, and Hitler lost equal, you can bargain in the capital, becoming a puppet of Nazi Germany in Italy.   Mussolini got the upper hand again after the summer immediately punish those who drive him to step down. Early 1944, including his son Ciano arrested, including six "rebels" was tried, begging her daughter failed to rescue Ciano. Finally, the six rebels, unless the withdrawal of a person because the initial vote in favor of him to step down and survived, the other 5 people are all to be put to death.
Par iqwsf - 0 commentaire(s)le 23 septembre 2010

"Desert Rats" against the "Desert Fox"

Referred to the Second World War battlefields in Africa, would have to mention two famous nickname, that is, "Desert Rats" and "Desert Fox", the former is the famous British general Montgomery, which is a famous war Nazi Germany to Rommel. Both are military strategist, in the same era on the battlefield with a super play their military skills. Belong to different camps destined to rival the two can not avoid confrontation.   November 17, 1887, Montgomery was born in London of a clerical family. Montgomery longing military career, in the age of 20 admitted to the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst. He participated in the Battle of Ypres in World War I, wounded, and received a Distinguished Service Medal. January 1920, he entered the staff college studies, graduation was assigned to the 17th Infantry Brigade, Major office staff, and participated in the Irish war. October 1938, was transferred to the Palestinians either Major General Commander. August 1939, also took 3rd Division of the expeditionary force duty. From one end of the war to the outbreak of World War II 20 years of painstaking research Montgomery theory and practice of war. Although he talented, but because he was too pretentious leading to offend his colleagues often, personnel relations are very general. On the other hand, has always been known for conservative British military also does not allow his intense ambition and innovation.   "Desert Rats" in Africa, mainly from Germany, opponents of the "Desert Fox" Rommel. Can be said to be matched in a contest between them would be good before the event.   Rommel, born in Germany in 1891 the city of Heidenheim an intellectual family. Rommel's father, not willing to join the army to encourage enlistment Rommel Rommel joined the army 18 years of age. World War I, Rommel was an infantry platoon leader, although the war did not give him more opportunities to participate in the fighting, but Rommel was wounded twice, won four medals for war service, he has exposed the war The high degree of enthusiasm and excellent quality of the fighting. By the writings of the "attack of the infantry," Hitler was in power, fancy, from Rommel opened the way for promotion. Shortly after the start of World War II, he was promoted to the 7th Armored Division Commander, in this less than six weeks of fighting, his armored division advancing more than 350 km, of which the last four days, 220 km to more than 2,000 casualties the cost of 9.7 million people captured by the enemy, 485 tanks, 4,000 trucks, artillery hundreds of doors, as the war of the German armored divisions in the most brilliant record of a division. To this end, he received the Cross of a warrior class. Rommel has gradually become a German in the "God of War" general hero.   February 1941, Hitler ordered Rommel Upon arrival in North Africa. He pursued the "best defense is offense," the credo, so take the initiative to take the offensive. In the 2 at the end, the Germans captured 恩努菲利亚. March, also the British positions 传奇私服 in advance of 450 miles, to the other side to accidental blow. In the next few months, the Germans occupied successively 马萨布莱加, Aguilar Da Biya, Macy Lane and the entire Baltic race plateau. British troops suffered heavy losses under Rommel's offensive, and even the British had defeated the Italian army command, General O'Connor has become a German prisoner of surprise. Rommel was later recaptured Cyrenaica command the army, defeated the British 8th Army Group to advance the direction of Egypt, captured by British forces 30,000 people. Rommel was promoted to commander of the Afrika Korps, oak leaves, swords get medals, and later was awarded the rank of Marshal.   British retreat in the African battlefield. July 1, 1942, because the British commander of the 8th Army's new attack by German fighters killed, has been given command of the "torch operations" ordered to Montgomery, as from Australia, South Africa, India and the British formed the " multinational force, "commander of the 8th Army. Although Montgomery was ordered in times of crisis, but do not degrading the mission, immediately after the arrival of rectifying units of the enemy, the new goals and win the confidence instilled in soldiers.   In the second half of 1942, due to various reasons, North Africa, began the war situation is not conducive to the transformation aspects of fascist Germany. In the command of Montgomery, the British 8th Army to revive military might, again and again win a victory, Rommel commanded the German troops are caught in an unprecedented is the passive position. October 23, Montgomery rate of the German 8th Army launched the offensive. Hitler is recuperating Rommel immediately re-sent to non-state, but has been unable to reverse the situation of the war. October-November 1942, after several rounds of fighting, Rommel's Afrika Korps was the command of a devastating blow to the British 8th Army to win a second major victory in the Battle of El Alamein. To 1.3 million British casualties, loss of 100 guns, 500 tanks, the cost of Rommel's Afrika Korps annihilated the 5 million people, destroyed 1,000 guns, tanks, about 500 units. Montgomery reputation this earthquake, known as the "Desert Rats." March 31, 1943, Hitler put Rommel recalled the High Command, awarded him the Medal of buildings diamond leaves, ordered him removed from office recuperate. "Desert Rats" and "Desert Fox" a direct dialogue Montgomery victory.   Montgomery retired in 1958, spent in his home town of his life. The World War II hero, is still the pride of the British legend in mind.
Par iqwsf - 2 commentaire(s)le 23 septembre 2010
Mercredi 08 septembre 2010

From the "steam age" to "electric age"

 Monopoly capitalism   From the "steam age" to "electric age"   Last 30 years of the 19th century and early 20th century, science and technology ushered in a new spring, science and technology also made a series of major breakthroughs and progress, followed, it is the upsurge of industrial production. The scientific and technological progress of modern history, known as the second industrial revolution, which marked the world by the "steam age" into the "electric age."   The industrial revolution in the sixties and seventies of the 19th century began in the late 19th century early 20th century, basically completed. Its extensive use of electricity for the remarkable features. Among them, the generator and motor are linked two important inventions. Generator is the mechanical energy into electrical energy; motors, by contrast, is the electrical energy into mechanical energy. As early as 1819, 传奇s服 Danish Oersted discovered the magnetic effect of current, to 30 years, the British scientist Michael Faraday discovered electromagnetic induction phenomenon, which laid the theoretical foundation for the generator.   Siemens 1866 Germany made a self-excited DC generator. Although this is still not perfect, but after many efforts, to 70 years, finally put into practical operation. In 1882, French scholar found a long-distance transmission Depreux method; same year, the American inventor Thomas Edison in New York established the first U.S. thermal power stations, transmission lines connected to a network.   Power began as the machine's power, its energy is far more than the large steam engine, and use much more convenient, so soon to call for energy products is rapidly being invented, such as lights, electric drill, train, telegraph, telephone and welding technologies. This not only been the rapid development of production technology, but also established a long-distance rapid communications equipment. Widespread use of electricity, making demand for electricity, so there has been a German Madepule long-distance transmission technology on the invention; U.S. inventor Thomas Edison also built 传奇sf a big first thermal power station, power transmission lines formed a network. Manufacture of power generation, transmission and distribution equipment, power industry have also established and developed the world's developed countries to take the lead from the steam engine era into the electric age.   On the other hand, With the significant increase in energy demand and the expansion of regional power, DC motor show expensive, often out of accidents and so on, so from the 19th century, since the 80, people would put on the AC on. 1885 Italian scientist Farari proposed rotating magnetic field principle, the invention of the AC motor has great significance. The late 80s early 90s, it created a three-phase induction motor, this form of motor, still in use. After 1891, more economical and reliable three-phase system of alternating current to the promotion, the power industry into a new stage of development.   Application of the second industrial revolution technology is another major achievement 传奇私服 of the invention and application of internal combustion engines. In 1876, German Otto built the first gas-fueled four-stroke internal combustion engine, a popular small-scale power machine. In 1883, German engineer Daimler has made to gasoline-fueled internal combustion engine, it has the horsepower, light weight, small size, high efficiency, the engine can be used as means of transport. In 1885, German mechanical engineer Karl Benz produced the first car, the Heights known as the "Father of cars." This car makes Benz patented the first of the Motor. Then, the German engineers in 1897, Diesel has created a structure more simple, cheaper fuel internal combustion engine - diesel, this engine though cumbersome than using gasoline internal combustion engine, but it is very suitable for heavy vehicles.   Communication during this period has also been considerable development and progress. In the 1876 Philadelphia World's Fair, from Scotland, Bell moved to the United States show was called "Far Hearing," the phone, causing a sensation. Phone technology is improved and extended, developed rapidly. In 1880, Bell Telegraph Company was established, it is today AT & T Inc. (AT & T) of the predecessor. 80 19th century, German physicist 英雄合击 Hertz proved the existence of electromagnetic waves, and measure the wavelength and speed of electromagnetic waves. Italian troops to Neely with Hertz's discovery, made wireless telegraphy communications equipment. In 1894, he used a very simple device, and began a short distance wireless telegraphy experiments; in 1899, he successfully transmitters between Britain and France; two years after the success of transmitters across the Atlantic.
Par iqwsf - 1 commentaire(s)le 08 septembre 2010

The same trench comrade of Marx

The same trench comrade of Marx - Engels   Engels is the world's proletariat and the oppressed masses of the exploited the great teacher, the founder of scientific socialism and international communist movement founder.   He was on Nov. 28, 1820 was born in Germany, Rhine Province, a textile factory outlets main Palestinian family. September 1837, was not graduated from high school his father sent to study business. From July 1838 to March 1841, in Bremen, a trading company doing business practice, the paper criticized the German feudal authoritarian rule, religious superstition and greed of the capitalists, the performance of the initial revolutionary democratic ideas. September 1841 to October 1842, military service in Berlin, attend the University of Berlin philosophy lectures, participate in the activities of Hegelians. He has published a "Schelling on Hegel", "Schelling and Revelation" and "Schelling - Christian philosopher" and brochures, sharply criticized the spread "Apocalypse philosophy" philosopher Schelling. He is also the paper exposed to Kaiser William IV of the German feudal autocratic system, a strong revolutionary democrats. Feuerbach's "Essence of Christianity," a book published, Engels accepted the materialism of Feuerbach.   November 1842, Engels in Manchester "European doors - Engels," textile company clerk, where he participated in the Charter school activities, get to know the justice activists in the League, and in-depth study of history, philosophy, political economy and Socialism, beginning from the idealistic to the materialism, from the revolutionary democratic change to the scientific communism. February 1844, in Marx editor of the "Yearbook of Germany and France," published "Critique of Political Economy Program", initially revealed the contradictions of capitalism and private ownership.   By the end of August 1844, Engels met in Paris on his way home Bypass Marx, started two life-long cooperation. September 1844 to March 1845, writing his door in Pakistan, "the British working class status", describes the plight of the proletariat and the 传奇世界私服 historic mission. 1845 and Marx co-wrote "The Holy Family", the same year in November to next May they co-wrote "German Ideology" that Marx and Engels has completed two major changes. The spring of 1846, Engels and Marx in Brussels, the Commission Communication to create communism. In the autumn, the activities in Paris, and educational justice for members of the League, so get rid of "real socialism" of.   January 1847, Engels and Marx to join the League of justice. In June, held in London, he attended the First Congress of the Communist League, in order to guide the creation of scientific socialism as the first proletarian revolutionary party. In the same year in October, was elected to the Paris District League Division Committee and entrusted with the drafting of the draft program alliance (the "Principles of Communism"), with a preliminary question and answer genre illustrates the basic principles of scientific communism. In November, and Marx attended the Second Congress of the United Democrats, and served as Secretary of the Congress. The General Assembly accepted the ideas of Marx and Engels developed a line with the principles of democracy, the constitution, and asked them to draft a program alliance. In mid-February 1848, in "Principles of Communism," based on the drafting of Marx and Engels's "Communist Manifesto" published in London.   2 March 1848, the European bourgeois revolution, one after another in Paris, Berlin, Vienna and other cities erupted; in March, Engels was elected as member of the Central Committee of the Communist League, Marx in Paris to draw up the "requirements of the Communist Party in Germany" . In April, they reached Cologne, Germany. Engels as the "Neue Rheinische Zeitung" editor, editorial board to assist the work of Marx over the paper. He also went door and the Rhine Province, Pakistan and other urban activities. Autumn 1848 to early 1849, in order to avoid the official chase, fled to Belgium and Switzerland, the Swiss Association helped organize the workers. May 1849, in love North Feite armed uprising. In June, in Baden - Palatinate any Willig volunteer corps adjutant, visit the front lines in combat. Went into exile in Switzerland after a failed uprising. November arrived in London, was elected League Central Committee, responsible for the restructuring of alliance work. In March 1850 and June, twice drafted in cooperation with Marx, "the Central Committee of the Communist League book." To support the family trapped in extreme poverty, Marx, Engels moved to Manchester in the year, in the "European doors - Engels company" doing business again.   While living in Manchester, Engels, Marx maintained with frequent communication link to discuss the theory and strategy of the international labor movement to explore the various fields of academic problems. Engels carried out extensive theoretical research, particularly military science, linguistics and depth of natural dialectics. November 1851 to November 1852, Engels as "the New York Daily Tribune," wrote a group entitled "The German revolution and counter-revolutionary" articles, a profound revolution in Germany, summed up the experience of 1848-1849, made an armed Uprising is an art-known thesis. 1857-1859, he was "the new American Encyclopedia," wrote a lot of military items. 1861-1865, has written many articles on the Civil War. 1867 "Capital" was published, the press and use his workers bourgeois press has written many articles of war comments and accurately analyze and predict the course of the war.   September 1870, Engels ended 20 years of "quiet Egyptian prisoners" type of business life, 传世私服 from Manchester moved to London to join the International Workers Association of Marx's leadership. In October, the proposal by Marx, he was elected member of the International General Council, either Belgium, Italy, Spain, Portugal and Denmark, Communication and general secretary of the Finance Committee members. During the Paris Commune, he and Marx commune solidarity with the activities of the Organization. September 1871 at the International Conference on London, Engels made according to the experience of the Paris Commune and the working class must participate in class struggle and the establishment of opposition political parties, with all the old independent political party of the proletariat. International The Hague in September 1872 during the General Assembly, together with Marx and Engels defeated Bakunin conspiracy by political and organizational issues concerning the resolution to make an important contribution. According to Engels's proposal, the International General Council moved to New York. Hague Conference, he wrote "On Authority", "socialist democracy alliance with the International Workers Association" (with the Marx co-wrote) and so on were, from the political, theoretical and organizational fully exposed and criticized Bakunin Group anarchism and separatism expounded democracy and centralism, democracy and the dictatorship of the dialectical relationship.   1876-1878, he wrote a group entitled "Eugen Mr. Du Lin in the implementation of the changes in science," the article (the "Anti-Duhring"), Turin in criticize the idealist and the petty bourgeoisie apriorism socialism, the first systematic exposition of the three components of Marxism - philosophy, political economy and scientific socialism, as well as many basic theories of natural science, this is a "deep and thorough thinking each has people can understand science encyclopedia. " Summer of 1880, should be the leaders of the French Workers Party Lafargue's request, the "Anti-Duhring," some of the chapters into the "utopian socialism and scientific socialism" (that is, "Socialism from utopian to scientific development "). This Marx called "scientific socialism Getting Started" booklet, on the popularity of the basic theory of Marxism played an important role. In 1873 to 1883, the Engels developed the "Dialectics of Nature" in writing an outline, to complete a number of chapters and fragments, laid the foundation of dialectics of nature. 1883 after the death of Marx, Engels alone the responsibility of guiding the international labor movement, edited and published (or republished) Marx left with, defend and development of Marxist theory and fostering young socialist activists and theorists the task.
Par iqwsf - 4 commentaire(s)le 08 septembre 2010
Dimanche 05 septembre 2010

The change from sheep to wolf

  The change from sheep to wolf - the Meiji Restoration in Japan   Half of the 19th century, following the bourgeois revolution in Europe and the Americas, the Asia, Japan also appeared once in the political, economic, ideological and cultural fields, a comprehensive reform movement. This to implement the New Deal for the purpose of the bourgeois capitalist reform movement began in the Meiji years, so known to history as "the Meiji Restoration."   Japan is a closed-door policy in the past, feudal and backward country. The country known as "the kingdom of God" is called "the gods to protect the country." Emperor is the incarnation of God, his subjects have their own supreme power. "Loyalty to serve the country", "loyalty Emperor" thinking has been the feudal society of Japan the highest moral standards.   To 1603, Tokugawa Ieyasu eliminated all over the separatist forces, made a "levy Yi General" title, set in the Edo Shogunate, Tokugawa established the dominance of the family. Shogun was dominated by the country's highest land ownership, directly under the total area of arable land accounts for about 1 / 4, is the largest feudal lords. And, also holds the country's commercial city and a mine, a monopoly on foreign trade, control of the country's economic lifeline. Politically, the Tokugawa shogunate name is "General", actually called himself "Lord British", representing the state, internal chair the government, at the helm did not take the emperor paid no attention. In order to strengthen their rule, the Tokugawa Shogunate plunder the land, build their own army, composed by a warrior, they generally are professional soldiers, has the privilege of knives, killing civilians with impunity, is a general rule the people Shogun main tool . In addition, they Shogun according to "scholars, farmers, industry, commerce," Simin's order, the samurai and farmers drawn under the status of the system by the level of strict limits. In addition, there are more than 30 million are known as "inhuman" and "foul and more" untouchables, they were excluded from the scholars, farmers, industry, commerce, the living a miserable life.   Shogun on the one hand desperately advocating pedantic Confucian thought, especially the heir to the speech, as Chinese culture, confined people's minds, suppress their revolt; the other hand, the implementation of seclusion in the "Closed Door" policy, the whole of Japan closely closed.   Tokugawa Shogunate that this way can long-term stability of the. But he absolutely did not expect, the late 18 world, with the commodity economy, there have appeared new landlord class and commercial capitalists, who have fought to gain political status, get rid of the feudal Tong Zhi, right shogunate Zhiduo generate dissatisfaction. The broad masses of the people unbearable suffering of life, against the emotions have become increasingly high, and connected the outbreak of numerous peasant uprisings and riots in the community. The resistance struggle, seriously shaken shogunate rule.   While constant state of anxiety when the shogunate, the Japanese 传奇私服 invasion of Western colonial powers. In 1853, the U.S. Navy fleet led by two generals Bailey broke into Edo Bay, forcing the Japanese to open trade in Hong Kong. Succumbed to the powers of fire shogunate, continuous and powers signed a number of unequal treaties and tariff agreements, sold out national sovereignty and national interests. A large number of farmers and artisans as the dumping of foreign goods into and go bust, the Japanese people by the double oppression and exploitation, the situation even more painful. Rapid intensification of ethnic and class conflicts, a overthrowing the feudal shogunate, imminent war for national independence.   December 1865, Choshu discussion led by Takasugi Shinsaku screen to send to farmers as the main body of the "Jones team" beat the conservatives, won the fan power. Subsequently, the Satsuma clan to discuss sending Xixianglongsheng screen, large text and other Poly people through control of the fan power. Soon, these two forces form a coalition to discuss screen, screen campaign into a national discussion of the core. One hand, they have political and economic reforms to mobilize farmers, businessmen and middle ranking samurai of the initiative; on the other hand, the military arm itself, the purchase of a large number of advanced weapons from the West, and the shogunate forces contend.   In the same year in December, sent to suppress discussion of Takaaki screen death of the Emperor, Emperor Meiji ascended the throne under 15 years of age. At this time, the court discussed the situation started to help screen to send direction. October 1867, Satsuma, Choshu, Aki screen to send San Francisco to discuss secret meeting held in Kyoto, the young Emperor Meiji decided to use the name of the armed down screen. One hand, they expand the force, the other secret contact with the Emperor, prepared to launch a palace coup, the generals ousted Tokugawa go.   Although the young Emperor Meiji, can be quite informative, dominated the political affairs of the Shogunate also very unhappy with the discussion immediately agreed to act together to send to overthrow the shogunate rule. Then, write a "screen Mizhao discussion," Okubo Toshimichi handed their hands.   Okubo Toshimichi, who received a Mi Zhao, ecstatic. Then, they called to discuss an important figure in screen sent in October 1867 one day early in the Kyoto Imperial palace of a study, where to discuss concrete measures.   Meanwhile, Tokugawa Yoshinobu had heard rumors, pleasant for the situation on its own detriment, the decision pre-emptive resignation so as not to conflict with the reformist front.   How can we believe that the princes of Southwestern Tokugawa Yoshinobu will easily surrender to the regime, one would see that this is their stalling tactics. Some discussion, agreed to use force to solve problems, to give a surprise Tokugawa Yoshinobu.   January 3, 1868, Southwest shuaibing surrounded the princes of the Imperial Palace, Temple guards lift the Tokugawa Shogunate in the armed forces. They surround the young Emperor Meiji, the convening of Imperial Conference, announced the "Restoration" power fully to the Emperor. Edict issued by Emperor Meiji then decided to establish a new central government under his leadership, and appointed Xixianglongsheng and Okubo Toshimichi of these reformist head of government affairs.   Kyoto, Tokugawa Yoshinobu overnight escape, retreat Osaka, concentrated all the troops, murderously invaded to Kyoto. Under the slogan "save the Emperor, Clear traitor" on the cover, two-pronged, ready to clamp pincer Kyoto.   Okubo Toshimichi, Xixianglongsheng, Kido Koin, who life to Satsuma, Choshu, Aki various armed clan in Kyoto near Toba, You see the two forces engaged the shogunate. Emperor Meiji to the sounding of personally supervised the operation, Masujiro Kimura 5000, led by well-equipped army, had favorable positions, has set up artillery, static forces such as the arrival of Shogun.   Midnight, the two armies met, the two sides launched a major fight against the enemies. Despite the large number of shogunate forces, but morale and lax, morale is very low, just a touch, and looked fled. The government troops are fighting strong, pit one against ten Yuezhanyueyong.   At the same time, reformers also proposed "tax relief", "Simin equal" slogan, the farmers and businessmen to fight to his side, to strengthen their own momentum. Therefore, funded by the rich variety of Mitsui and other military supplies a steady flow of people to the front by the people, and many people find the soil guns, Tu Bao direct combat. Shogunate army days are numbered, Tokugawa Yoshinobu hasty retreat, fled to Edo. Troops not to give you the opportunity to break, tracking shogunate Canjun, immediately surrounded by Edo. Tokugawa Yoshinobu see their own army has disintegrated, Edo's residents will not support themselves, battles end of the road, decided to lay down their arms, surrender to the Emperor. Subsequently, the government forces have moved into Edo, so that ruled Japan for more than 200 years old Tokugawa shogunate collapsed.   3,4 months in 1868, the Meiji government promulgated the "Charter Oath" and "polity book," The introduction of capitalism, the basic principle of the New Deal, from 1868 -1 873 years, launched a bold reform movement.   The main contents of the reform movement to recover the territory of the feudal landlords to abolish the feudal class system status, support capitalist industry and commerce, get rid of the old feudal culture. Conducive to the development of capitalism, these reform measures, the Japanese took the capitalist road, out of the crisis being colonized by a backward feudal society, capitalism gradually transformed into an independent power.
Par iqwsf - 4 commentaire(s)le 05 septembre 2010
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